Concrete does not contain steel reinforcing, or reinforcing of any kind.

Car parking facilities, covered and multi-storey. Does not include flat open lots.

The roof is curved. It may be of a regular round arched shape, or more irregularly curved when viewed in section.

RSH7_Canada_Brzev_3

Curved roof, Rogers Arena, Vancouver, Canada (S. Brzev)

RSH7_Iran_Naeim_1

Curved roof (earthen dome), Iran (F. Naeim, World Housing Encyclopedia Report 104)

RSH7_Canada_Brzev_1

Irregular curved roof, Canada (S. Brzev)

RSH7_Canada_Brzev_2

Regular curved roof, Canada (S. Brzev)

RSH7_China_Brzev_1

Curved roof shape, Beijing Capital International Airport, China (S. Brzev)

A cripple wall is a wall that is less than a full storey high, and it usually occurs between a foundation and the ground floor in a light wood frame building (thus creating a crawl space). These walls are weak because they are typically sheathed with only stucco or horizontal wood siding on the exterior side of the wall. These sheathing materials are inadequate wall-bracing methods. Damage and collapse of older wood frame buildings at the cripple-wall level was observed in past earthquakes.

CRW_FEMA G225_1

Cripple wall and crawl space (FEMA G225)

Collapse of a wood-frame house which slid over the cripple wall, 1983 Coalinga, California earthquake (EERI)

Collapse of a wood-frame house which slid over the cripple wall, 1983 Coalinga, California earthquake (EERI Reconnaissance Team)

CRW_USA_NISEE_1

Cripple wall failure in the 1971 San Fernando, California earthquake (Courtesy of K.V. Steinbrugge and the NISEE, University of California, Berkeley)

The building footprint is a round shape; circular, elliptical, or ovoid.

PLFC_Canada_Brzev_1

A building with a solid elliptical plan shape, Vancouver, Canada (Map data ©2013 Google, Province of British Columbia, DigitalGlobe, IMTCAN)