Reinforced concrete cast onto steel decking, supported by beams or load bearing walls. They are sometimes overlaid with light-weight roofing. This system is similar to the floor system called Composite Steel Floor Deck and Concrete Slab.


Composite steel deck and concrete slab supported by steel trusses, Canada (S. Brzev)


Steel trusses (Open Web Steel Joists) supported by precast concrete tilt-up walls, Canada (S. Brzev)

Concrete is a composite material consisting of Portland cement, coarse aggregate (crushed stone), fine aggregate (sand), and water. It is usually grey in colour. The following types of concrete are included in the GEM Building Taxonomy:

Concrete blocks with two or more cells (cavities) comprising more than 30% of the volume, which may be grouted and reinforced.

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Hollow concrete blocks, Peru (S. Brzev)

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Hollow concrete blocks with three cells, Haïti (front) and with two cells, Canada (rear), (S. Brzev)

Concrete blocks are hollow or solid masonry units consisting of Portland cement and suitable aggregates combined with water. These blocks are usually laid in mortar. The following types of concrete blocks are included in the Taxonomy:

Concrete blocks with less than 30% holes (cavities).


Concrete blocks, solid, Peru (A. Charleson)