Steel members that are formed from folded (cold-formed) sheet steel. Typically used in steel framed house construction in conjunction with sheet materials that may provide bracing.

Lightweight steel framing, Canada (S.Brzev)

Cold-formed steel framing, Canada (S.Brzev)


Cold-formed steel framing detail, USA (S. Brzev)



Cold-formed steel construction, Kyrgyzstan (left: K. Kanbolotov; right: U. Begaliev, A. Duishev, and R. Musakov)


Cold-formed steel framing under construction, Kyrgyzstan (U. Begaliev, A. Duishev, and R. Musakov)

Buildings used for higher education and vocational training. Group housing, e.g. college residences, is not included in this category: refer to Institutional housing.

The building is mainly used for commercial and public purposes, including retail, storage, sports facilities, hospitals, libraries and museums.

A building used for research, or laboratory buildings, within a university or college.

It is clear that the building is a commercial building, but the exact type of commercial use is unknown.