Reinforced concrete slabs are supported by columns or load-bearing walls. Flat slabs are supported by columns with capitals and/or drop panels, while flat plates are supported by columns without capitals. This floor system also includes waffle slabs without beams. Slabs or plates can be post-tensioned. They are sometimes overlaid with lightweight roofing.


Reinforced concrete waffle slab, Canada (S. Brzev)


Reinforced concrete flat plate supported by columns, USA (S. Brzev)

Reinforced concrete roof slab, Pakistan (J. Bothara)

Reinforced concrete roof slab supported by walls, Pakistan (J. Bothara)

Reinforced concrete flat slab system with capitals, UK (S. Brzev)

Reinforced concrete flat slab system with capitals, UK (S. Brzev)

Concrete that has been cast on site in its final location in the structure.


Cast-in-place construction (columns), California (A. Charleson)


Cast-in-place concrete beam construction (note reinforcement and formwork), Canada (S. Brzev)


Cast-in-place reinforced concrete slab reinforcement installation (left) and the slab supported by the shoring after the concrete has been cast (right), Canada (S. Brzev)


Cast-in-place concrete construction, India (note formwork for the slab construction) (S. Brzev)


Cast-in-place reinforced concrete building under construction, California (C. Scawthorn)

Cement mortar between masonry units consists of a cement and sand  mix. Cement mortar has a light grey colour (similar to concrete). It is considered a high-strength mortar, and it cannot be easily removed from the wall. However, mix proportions for cement mortar widely range between countries, from 1:6 cement:sand to 1:3 cement:sand. Note that a  larger amount of cement results in higher mortar strength and influences the strength of masonry construction.  Cement mortar can be used for all types of masonry construction, except for adobe masonry.

Cement mortar (S. Brzev)

Cement mortar (S. Brzev)

As per Cast-in-Place Concrete, but where primary members of the Lateral Load-Resisting System are post-tensioned with steel cables or rods.


A typical prestressing cable (S. Brzev)


Prestressing cables laid out before the concrete pour (Canada, S. Brzev)


Anchorage of a prestressed concrete element, Canada (S. Brzev)

Fibre cement or asbestos boards, and fibre-reinforced concrete (FCR) and glass reinforced concrete (GRC) panels.


Exterior walls made of corrugated asbestos sheets, Canada (S. Brzev)