Insufficient or no seismic separation gap between buildings thus allowing them to pound and damage each other. A building can have pounding potential if the gap between buildings is less than 4% of the height (h) of the lower building, e.g. less than 400 mm for h = 10 m.

POP_diagram_-_1

If x is less than 4% of h, the buildings can have pounding potential.

POP_USA_Brzev_1

 

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Many adjacent buildings in urban centres without a separation gap have pounding potential, Seattle, USA (S. Brzev)

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Adjacent buildings of different height, pounding potential, Kathmandu, Nepal (K. Porter)

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Two adjacent reinforced concrete buildings on a sloped ground suffered a major damage in the 2003 Boumerdes, Algeria earthquake; the buildings had an inadequate seismic gap, and the pounding effect was significant due to floor slabs at different elevations (S. Brzev)

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Damage due to pounding in reinforced concrete buildings with floors at different elevations in the 1999 Athens earthquake (A. Pomonis)

POP_Turkey_WHE64_1

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Pounding damage in adjacent buildings of different heights affected by the 1999 Turkey earthquakes (Gulat, Ascheim, and Spence, World Housing Encyclopedia Report 64)

POP_Chile_Brzev_1

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Pounding damage in Santiago due to the 2010 Chile earthquake (S. Brzev)

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Damage to an unreinforced masonry building in Santiago due to the pounding effect in the 2010 Chile earthquake (S. Brzev)

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Pounding damage due to the 2010 Chile earthquake (S. Brzev)

POP_USA_Scawthorn_1

POP_USA_Scawthorn_2

 

 

 

 

Adjacent buildings without seismic gap, pounding potential, San Francisco, USA (C. Scawthorn)

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Adjacent buildings of different height without seismic gap, pounding potential, San Francisco, USA (C. Scawthorn)